Panch Phoron

In equal parts:
Fenugreek seeds (methi)
Nigella seeds (kalonji)
Mustard seeds (rai or shorshe)
Fennel seed (saunf or mouri)
Cumin seed (jira)
(The mustard seeds may be brown or yellow)

Some variations may substitute anise for the fennel seeds or wild mustard for cumin, radhuni seed for mustard, and possibly black cumin for nigella.

The spices are popped in hot oil or ghee (clarified butter) to release the flavour. This flavoured oil (usually pungent mustard oil) is used to season vegetable or fish dishes (Panch phoron is very rarely used in meat preparations).

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